Political Strategy Prior to the Outbreak of War Part I (Japanese Monograph)

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POLITICAL STRATEGY PRIOR TO OUTBREAK OF WAR PART I PREPARED BY MILITARY HISTORY SECTION
HEADQUARTERS, ARMY FORCES FAR EAST DISTRIBUTED BY OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF MILITARY HISTORY
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Japanese Monograph
No. 144

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No.
Preface/Foreword

Chapter I Manchurian Incident 1

Situation Prior to the Manchurian Incident 1

Outbreak of the Manchurian Incident 2

Progress of the Manchurian Incident 5

Chapter II China Incident? 9

Primary Causes of China Incident 9

Outbreak and Expansion of the China Incident 13

Progress of the China Incident 14

First Year of the China Incident (1937) 14

Japanese National Policy Prior to Outbreak 16
of China Incident

Policies of Central Army and Navy Authori- 16
ties of Japan at Outbreak of the China Incident

Attitude of Chinese Authorities at the 17
Outbreak of the Conflict

Diplomatic negotiations between Japan and 18
China

Measures taken by the Japanese Navy before 21
the Shanghai Incident

Evacuation of residents from the Yangtze 23
River area

Evacuation of Japanese residents in South 25
China

Navy Operations 25

Shanghai Incident 28

Situation on the Eve of the Incident 28

War Preparations by the Japanese Navy 31

The Sinking of the USS Panay 32

Chapter III Second Year of the China Incident? (1938) 34

Japanese Navy Policy for China Incident, 37
May 1938

National Policy Toward during and after 38
October 1938

Military Operations against China during 1938 39

The battle for Hsu-Chou? 39

Hankow Operation (Yangtze Upstream Operation) 40

Canton Operation 41

Strategic and Political Achievements 42

Chapter IV Third Year of the China Incident? (1939) 44

Operations against China during 1939 45

General Outline of Operations 45

Hainan Island Operation (10 February 1939) 46

Nomonhan Incident (May – August 1939) 47

Political Relations with China during 49
the Third Year of the China Incident

Policy for Readjusting Sino-Japanese? Relationship 49

Japan’s Political Moves for the Estab- 51
lishment of the Wang Ching-wei Regime
(New Central Government)

Abrogation of the American-Japanese? 53
Commerce Navigation Treaty (26 July 1939)

APPENDICES

Appendix No 1? Hirota Cabinet’s Nation and Foreign Policies
(Informally reported to the Emperor on 15
August 1936)

Appendix No 2? Hayashi Cabinet’s China Policy and Guidance
Principles for North China

Appendix No 3? Policies Formulated by Japanese Army Authori-
ties on 8 July 1937

Appendix No 4? The Policies Formulated by Japanese Navy
Authorities on 8 July 1937

Appendix No 5? China Policy of the Japanese Government as
reported to and approved by the Emperor on
11 July 1937

Appendix No 6? Gist of statement made by Chiang Kai-shek on
17 July 1937 at Lushan

Appendix No 7? Agreement between the Army and the Navy Gen-
eral Staffs on Operations in North China
(11 July 1937)

Appendix No 8? Confidential Instructions Concerning Troop
Commitments for Operations against China
(to be circulated informally as a tentative
plan of the Supreme Command)

Appendix No 9? Operational Plans of the Third Fleet
(29 July 1937)

Appendix No 10? Imperial General Headquarters Navy Order No 13

Appendix No 11? Fundamental Policy to deal with the China
Incident (Decided at the Council in the
Imperial Presence on 11 January 1938)

Appendix No 12? Decisions Reached at the Five Ministers’
Conference (24 June to 19 July 1938)

Appendix No 13? Request from Wang Chao-ming Concerning Im-
plementation of the Principle of Respecting
the Sovereignty of China (October – November 1939)